spottingVaginal bleeding between periods is also called intermenstrual bleeding, spotting, and metrorrhagia. When bleeding occurs between normal periods, there are many possible causes. Because spotting can indicate a serious underlying condition, you should see your doctor for testing, diagnosis, and treatment options.

The major causes of Spotting are:

1. Hormonal Fluctuations
Estrogen and progesterone are the two hormones that regulate your cycle. If they get out of balance, you may have spotting. Dysfunctional ovaries, thyroid gland problems, and starting and stopping birth control pills, can all affect your hormone balance.
2. Delayed Period
Quite often, a delayed period could result in brown spotting after a menstruation cycle. This is caused by the shedding of the endometrial tissue lining of the uterus. This is a cleaning process of old blood and tissue out of the uterus. In most situations, there is nothing to worry about. However if the flow gets heavy and continues for several days, get it checked.
3. Implantation Bleeding
If you have noticed brown spotting 3 to 4 weeks after your last menstrual cycle, especially if you have recently indulged in unprotected sex or stopped taking birth control pills, it could signify implantation bleeding. This type of a spotting is an indication of an early sign of pregnancy.
4. Repeated Yeast Infection
The worst type of yeast infection is usually accompanied by pain, burning and irritation along with brown spotting. Few of the infections will also vary in color and smell. You will know that there is a sign of infection due to the foul odor accompanying the discharge.
5. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
A pelvic inflammatory disease infection is a condition affecting the uterus, ovaries or fallopian tubes. Many girls develop PID due to a range of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) such as gonorrhea, vaginal warts, chlamydia, etc. Abnormally colored and foul-smelling discharge, spotting after periods, pain during sexual intercourse, tenderness and pain in the lower abdomen region, should be looked into by a physician.
6. Infection
Vaginal bleeding between periods may indicate an infection of the reproductive organs. Infection can cause inflammation and bleeding and may be from a sexually transmitted infection
7. Cervical Cancer
Bleeding after periods that lasts for over three menstrual cycles, may be something more serious than a normal brown spotting. If you experience heavy bleeding after intercourse, you must contact your gynecologist immediately. In few extreme cases, any unusual bloody secretion, whether red or brown, could indicate cervical or uterine cancer.
8. Damage To An Internal Part
In a serious case, a brownish discharge could be altered blood. This means it could be a symptom of some type of damage in the internal part of the reproductive organs. This will require a detailed examination. It could be caused by a polyp, an erosion or an injury on the mouth or the surface of the uterus. This could be a serious medical condition that requires immediate attention.
9. Early Stages Of Menopause
Several phases of a menstrual cycle such as menopause or perimenopause may result in vaginal spotting after the period. Often spotting after a menstrual cycle may be an indication of an early menopause stage. This is a transitional stage that occurs between an active menopause stage and your fertile years. If the bleeding isn’t heavy and you are not cramping more than usual, there is no reason for concern.
10. Too Much Stress
This could cause disruption in your period cycle and interfere with your fertility. As a result, you will notice fluctuations in your period cycle accompanied by severe menstrual cramps and spotting. If you are under a lot of stress and have noticed some amount of spotting, it may be time to bring some lifestyle changes.